New Geographical Map of Galaxies and Universe by Using Omega Lines and Planes

(The Exact Address of Each Star or Galaxy in the Universe)

One of the most beautiful galaxies in the universe is our Milky Way galaxy, which is an almost spiral and flat galaxy that has a center and rings that revolve around it.

There is a black hole in its center, which we call the central point “O”. We draw an imaginary line from the “O” point toward our Sun and extend it to the edge of the galaxy. We consider this imaginary line “OM” as the reference line and call it “ω0” line or “ω0” plane, which can actually be said it is the starting point to divide the plane of the galaxy into different “ω” planes.

It can be easily seen that the relevant plane can be divided into the following units: (400 gradians, 60 minutes, 60 seconds). If we multiply these 3 units together, we achieve a significant number (1,440,000), which actually tells us that we have divided the Milky Way galaxy into 1,440,000 different “ω” planes.

New Geographical Map of Galaxies and Universe  by Using Omega Lines and Planes

If we assume the number of stars of the Milky Way galaxy to be 100 billion and divide them by related number (1,440,000), we can obtain the average number of stars that exist in each “ω” plane, which is about 70,000. In fact, it can be said that about 70,000 stars are located in each line or plane.

Considering that the distance from the center of the galaxy to its edge is about 52,000 light-years. It can be said that for every one light-year, 1 or 2 stars can be found on this plane or line.

If we want to give an identification location code to “α” star, we only need to consider its distance from the center of the galaxy and its angle address. So with these descriptions and according to the figure, we can say that the code of a star can be written as follows:

$$S_{\alpha }[^{A_{g}\ ,\ \ \ B\textrm{´},\ \ \ C\textrm{˝}}_{\ \ \ \ {\Large r}(D\ {\scriptsize Ly})}]$$

Where the “r” is the distance of the star “α” from the center and the “A”, “B” and “C” are the angle in gradian, minute and second. According to the contents, for example, the code of star “α” can be written as below:

\[S_{\alpha }[^{230_{g}\ \ ,\ \ \ 34\textrm{´},\ \ \ 25\textrm{˝}}_{\ \ \ \ {\Large r}(42375\ {\scriptsize Ly})}]\]

Where the upper line is the angle and the lower line is the distance. Considering that there are approximately 70,000 stars in each omega line or plane, and compared to the 52,000 light-years radial distance, it can be said that there are no more than 2 stars in each light-year distance.

New Geographical Map of Galaxies and Universe  by Using Omega Lines and Planes

Geographical map of the universe or the set of galaxies:

In order to show the geographical map of the universe and the related codes, it is enough to consider what was obtained for the Milky Way galaxy for a plane of the globe of universe and add an angle to it to show different planes. In this model, the origin is the center of the universe or the point of the Big Bang, and the plane “ω0” is the plane crossing the OM line in the Milky Way galaxy and the origin. The rest of the calculations are the same as the calculations inside the galaxies.

Note: The direction of movement does not matter whether we take the “ω” planes clockwise or anti-clockwise and it is contractual.

So, it is enough to add an angle based on radians to the previous or mentioned specifications, where “ρ” is the distance of the galaxy to the center of the universe, and the radian angle demonstrates the location of that particular galaxy on the perimeter of circle with “ρ” radius.

For example, we consider a galaxy in the universe at point “β”:

\[G_{\beta}\begin{bmatrix} A_{g },\ \ Bˊ\ ,\ C˝ \\ \rho\left( \text{D }\ {\scriptsize MPC} \right)\ \varphi(\frac{2\pi}{n}) \\ \end{bmatrix}\]

Where “ρ” is the distance of the galaxy from the center of the universe in megaparsec and "φ" is the angle in radians that demonstrates the particular plane where the galaxy located on.

The “ρ” is between 0 and 1024 megaparsecs and the "φ" is between 0 and 2π

\[\mathbf{0} \leq \rho \leq \mathbf{10}^{\mathbf{24}}\ \ {\scriptsize MPC}\ \] \[\mathbf{0} \leq \varphi \leq \mathbf{2\pi}\]

For example:

\[G_{\beta}\begin{bmatrix} 230_{g}\ ,\ 63ˊ\ ,\ 60˝ \\ \rho\left( 36500\ \ {\scriptsize MPC} \right)\ \varphi(\ \frac{\pi}{6}) \\ \end{bmatrix}\]

Discovering the True Nature of Forces and Energies (The Unity of All of Them)

One of the most abundant energies, which is also the source of life, is Radiant Energy, or the Light Energy, in which photons are separated from the sun and hit the planets, and we calculate its energy with the following equation:

Discovering the True Nature of Forces and Energies (The Unity of All of Them)

Also, another famous energy is kinetic energy in which an object with mass of “m” moves from one point to another point that it can be said that the displaced energy can be calculated by the formula:

Discovering the True Nature of Forces and Energies (The Unity of All of Them)

In fact, the mass of an object can also be written as "m = nmp" where "n" is the number of constituent photons of this particular mass and mp is the Photon mass.

1. Gravitational force

If we consider gravitational force, which is the force between two masses, that is actually the effect of interaction between two masses, that affect each other and create attraction force between them. If we want to imagine this force, we can say that the gravitational force is the same chained photons that are moving between two objects and it causes the effect between these two objects.[1-3]

2. Magnetic force

If we have two magnetic objects with N & S poles, there is always a magnetic force between these two magnets, which is from N to N poles or S to S ones in the form of repulsive force and from N to S or S to N poles is in the form of attractive. Now, if we intend to explain the structure of this magnetic force, we have to say that the magnetic force is the same invisible chained photons that go from pole N to S.[4-5]

3. Coulomb force

It is clear that the Coulomb force usually exists between two positively and negatively charged particles, which is caused by the effect of excess or deficit of electrons. Due to the increase of electrons in a certain surface, a charged environment is created and this surface has a force effect. Considering that electrons are made up of photons, it can be said that this source of charge is the same photons that make up electrons.

Discovering the True Nature of Forces and Energies (The Unity of All of Them)

Considering that charge is the number of electrons, and the electrons are composed of photons, then it can be said that the electric charge force is the same effect of the displacement of photons.

4. Nuclear force

According to what has already been said about the structure of the nucleus, the nucleus is composed of neutrons and protons that are arranged in a special way next to each other by the Coulomb force. It is clear that the nuclear force (weak and strong) is the same nuclear force between neutrons and protons of the nucleus, which are rotating at a speed near to the speed of light, and these neutrons and protons themselves are also composed of photons.[6-7]


According to the above contents, it can be said that all forces and all energies are actually different states of photons, for example, let's look at our water molecule (H2O), that it has different states, like vapor, ice, hail, snow, rain, etc. In fact, all of them are the same water, so it can be said that all forces and energies are the same moving photons with different structures.


[1] Gh. Saleh, "Gravitational frequency of stars with their planets and planets with other planets in the same system," in 38th Jim Isenberg Pacific Coast Gravity Meeting (PCGM 2022), March 01, 2022 2022, p. 1.4. [Online]. Available:

[2] Gh. Saleh. "New Discoveries About Gravity?!!!" (accessed.

[3] Gh. Saleh. "New Discoveries About Gravity?!!! 2." (accessed.

[4] Gh. Saleh, "Calculation of the Frequency and Energy of Ordinary Magnets," presented at the APS Texas Sections Spring Meeting March 01, 2022, 2022. [Online]. Available:

[5] Gh. Saleh. "New Discoveries about the Magnetic Fields." (accessed.

[6] Gh. Saleh. "New Discoveries about the Nucleus of Atoms." (accessed.

[7] Gh. Saleh. "New Discoveries about the Nucleus of Atoms 2." (accessed.

Saleh Theory
A Revolution in Light Theory

Saleh Research Group is an independent scientific group that based its strategy on scientific ingenuity and innovation.

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Publication of 52 Saleh Research Group's Abstracts by NASA Astrophysics Data System

Publication of Saleh Research Group's Abstracts by Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Contradiction Between Einstein's and Planck’s Formulae to Calculate the Energy of the Photon

In this video we defined contradiction in equality of Einstein's and Planck's formula for Photons in details and by introducing new definition for photon’s motion we solved this problem.

New Discoveries About Gravity?!!!

New Discoveries About Gravity?!!!

1) New Calculation of Gravity Frequency in Solar Systems

2) New Discovery of the Structure of Gravitational Force Lines (Gravitational Fluxes) and Its General Model

3) The Possibility of Data Transmission, Tens, Hundreds, Thousands of Times of the Light Speed in the Universe

4) The Possibility of Creation of a Speed Close to the Speed of Light in Spacecraft

5) Discovery of the Theory of Everything!!!?

6) Creating a Gravity Power Plant Using Gravitational Turbines to Get Strong and Clean Energy Everywhere and Everlasting, at Any Time

It is clear that, when a light spectrum or an object enters from a vacuum to a denser medium, such as air, the velocity of that will surely decrease, and the denser the media, the greater the change in velocity and kinetic energy. It should be noted that when a photon enters a denser medium from the air, such as water or glass, the photon Impulse the media and also that media impulse the photon which causes the refraction of light. To put in another way, the impulse changes the direction of light.
According to the rotational motion of a photon, in which the component of the velocity vector are in the direction of linear motion (v ͈ ) and perpendicular to it ( v ̝ ), the change in velocity is also like that and it would not effect on its gyroradius. As a result, the R will not change so the wavelength will be constant. Thus, our changes are only in the change of the frequency ( f=v⁄λ). The important point is that the velocity of the photon depends on that media, and if the media decreases the photon velocity, the initial velocity of photons for the next medium is the last velocity in the previous medium.
Attention: If a light spectrum enters or exits a denser medium perpendicularly, refraction usually does not occur and for composite light dispersion does not occur since the angle of entry and exit of light is in one direction. But if the incidence angle of composite light is acute, the dispersion of light will usually occur and the higher the light spectrum frequencies, the greater the angle of refraction of that spectrum. Like sunlight radiation to the optical prism which causes the natural (white) light being dispersion and become colored and the higher the frequency, the greater the angle of deviation.

Since the Big Bang has created both rotational and linear motion of particles, over time a centripetal force has been created. As a result of this rotation that is called a dark matter, or in our theory vivid force, suns come close together at a point which called the center (black holes) and immerge in each other, forming very large suns till they reach very high gravity and very high density, which actually called the black hole.

Saleh Theory: Initial explanation Several batches of photons had collided at one point, had behaved according to the impulse theory and the Big Bang has occurred, which will be explained in our articles in the near future.

According to what has been said about dark energy ( dark energy is the remaining of the Big Bang (Big Bang is a sudden and intense explosion of the universe at one point). And in fact, at beginning the celestial objects had very very high accelerated motion and over time, after billions of years, electrons, protons, suns and galaxies have been created and some of the energy had been consumed for the production of them. After that very high acceleration period, the world has reached a balance and relative homogeneity. In fact, from the Big Bang time, the world has begun to tear, and over time, this discontinuity has reached to a closeness, homogeneous and balance. It should be noted that the beginning time of homogeneity and equilibrium in the world is the beginning time of the creation of dark energy.

  • 3 Dimensional Motion of Photon and Its Energy

    Saleh Research Group presented an article entitled "3 Dimensional Motion of Photon and Its Energy" in the European Optical Society Annual Meeting (EOSAM) which held virtually during 07-11 Sep, 2020.

  • The experimental reason which could prove the 3 dimensional photon motion

    In 2017, Saleh Research Group proposed the theory of 3 dimensional photon motion and published this theory in the MATEC Web of Conferences[1]. At the time, this theory seemed to be a completely deconstructing theory, but over time, the experimental signs of 3 dimensional photon motion have been became apparent.

    Mr. Luis and his colleagues presented their experimental results at the European Optical Society Annual meeting (EOSAM 2020) entitled "Structuring high-frequency light using high-harmonic sources" [2] that indicate the existence of rotational motion in the larger structures than single photons which we can drive the rotational motion of the photons from their results.

  • New Definition of the Colorfulness of Photon

    Saleh Research Group published its video entitled "New Definition of the Colorfulness of Photon" in May 5, 2017 about photon motion on its YouTube channel.

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