A new equation for calculating the energy of electromagnetic waves

The kinetic energy of objects is calculated by the following universally valid relation:

A new equation for calculating the energy of electromagnetic waves

And it states that the amount of mass (m) multiplied by the square of the velocity (v) of any object always gives us its kinetic energy (E). It can also be used in electromagnetic waves so that in this relation, the mass is the same as the mass of the photon and the velocity is the same as the velocity of photon. Also, since the mass and velocity of photon are constant values, therefore the relative product of one-half of the mass (m), multiplied by the square of the photon velocity (C), is always a constant value. So the basic energy of electromagnetic waves can be defined using the following equation:

A new equation for calculating the energy of electromagnetic waves

Since this term always is a constant value, we represent it by, “S”. In fact, “S” is the "basic unit of energy of electromagnetic waves". And its value is equal to:

A new equation for calculating the energy of electromagnetic waves

Considering that “S” is always a constant value, to calculate the energy of various electromagnetic waves, it is enough to multiply the coefficient of that specific wave “n” by “S”.

A new equation for calculating the energy of electromagnetic waves

Where for each wave “n” or the same "energy coefficient of electromagnetic waves" is different. To obtain this coefficient for each electromagnetic wave, we do as follows:

A new equation for calculating the energy of electromagnetic waves

For example, we calculate the energy coefficient of electromagnetic wave of green light (𝑛𝐺) with a frequency of 555 THz:

A new equation for calculating the energy of electromagnetic waves

In the same way “n” can be calculated for all electromagnetic waves.

New Discovery of Virtual Waves in the World Or A Revolution in the Manufacturing of Space Telescopes

I. Explanation of how virtual waves are created and its negative effects

II. Design and manufacturing of low-defect telescopes based on wavelength

I. Explanation of how virtual waves are created and its negative effects

As an introduction, the following experiment can be used to express and explain the Redshift and Blueshift phenomenon.

A) Experiment: Using the movement of green light source First mode: Motionless light source

New Discovery of Virtual Waves in the World Or A Revolution in the Manufacturing of Space Telescopes

It is clear that the relation C=λf always holds true, because when the green light source be motionless, all three observers see the source as green. So the following relations can be written for all three observers:

New Discovery of Virtual Waves in the World Or A Revolution in the Manufacturing of Space Telescopes
New Discovery of Virtual Waves in the World Or A Revolution in the Manufacturing of Space Telescopes

According to the figure, it can be said that an electromagnetic wave has the parameters of wavelength (λ) and amplitude (a), which are particular values for each light. In fact, the certificate of a wave is its wavelength and amplitude. It should be noted that the relation λ ≈ 4a always holds true. On the other words, wavelength and amplitude are dependent on each other and the wavelength is a coefficient of the amplitude.

Considering that green light is between blue and red light, the wavelength and amplitude of green light is greater than the wavelength and amplitude of blue light and smaller than red light. It should be noted that wavelength and amplitude are the real and true nature of a light.

Second mode: Moving light source

New Discovery of Virtual Waves in the World Or A Revolution in the Manufacturing of Space Telescopes

According to the figure, the light source moves toward observer “D”. It is clear that observer “D” perceives the green light of the source as blue and observer “B” perceives the color of the same light as red. The variable parameter is speed, and as a researcher ignoring the color change is impossible.

So, we explain it physically as follows:

The relation C=λf is valid for all observers. Since observer “A” moves along with the green light source, it always perceives the light as green and it will definitely not perceive a change in color. This shows that there has been no change in the nature of green light, because no variable parameter has changed the wavelength and amplitude. So it can be concluded that ”λ” is the same for all three observers. As a result, whenever the speed is changed, it changes the frequency because the frequency is the number of photons which hit on the surface per unit of time. So it can be written like this:

New Discovery of Virtual Waves in the World Or A Revolution in the Manufacturing of Space Telescopes

According to the contents, it can be concluded that the change in color is due to the change in speed. If the speed of the source is added to the speed of light, the color of perceived light changes to blue, and if it decreases, the color changes to red, while this light is always green. As a result, it can be said that the nature of green light is real, but observing blue and red lights is virtual. In other words, changing the speed, changes the frequency, and as a result, the observer perceives the frequency higher or lower than the real frequency.

Note: When the speed of an object is up to 0.2 C (where C is the speed of light), the Redshift and Blueshift phenomenon is still in the range of visible light. In other words, it can be said that whenever a moving object has a speed of about 0.2 to 0.3 times of the speed of light, we will have Redshift and Blueshift phenomena in the range of visible light, and whenever the speed exceeds these ranges, an object cannot be seen anymore and becomes invisible, and to see it some provisions should be considered. It should also be noted that Redshift and Blueshift phenomenon is a common phenomenon in the universe, like the phenomenon of mirage on Earth. Mirage is a phenomenon that can be seen but does not exist.

For example, we consider Hubble's law, VH=HD, where “VH” is the speed, “H” is Hubble's constant, and “D” is the distance, that it can be written:

New Discovery of Virtual Waves in the World Or A Revolution in the Manufacturing of Space Telescopes

Considering that the Blueshift and Redshift phenomenon is a simple and natural phenomenon, at high speeds when “VH” would be close to the speed of light, this causes some changes in our perceived speed compared to the real speed. And due to the constant distance, changes in speed give changes in Hubble's constant. In fact, the change of Hubble's constant, which is about 70 ± 3 , is due to the changes in speed.

B) New explanation for virtual waves

Although the Redshift and Blueshift phenomenon cause deviation in our perceptions, it is a real phenomenon in the universe. It means that this phenomenon has an effect in the universe and it happens and has a real existence. Therefore, in order to find out the truth, we must pay attention to the following notes:

New Discovery of Virtual Waves in the World Or A Revolution in the Manufacturing of Space Telescopes

Considering the size of the universe, which has a radius of 1046 meters, the possibility of Redshift and Blueshift phenomena is very high. According to Hubble's law, it can be shown:

New Discovery of Virtual Waves in the World Or A Revolution in the Manufacturing of Space Telescopes

Therefore, if the distance between the observer and the desired object would be 1025 to 1026 meters, the phenomenon of Redshift or Blueshift occurs, in which the frequency of visible lights are changed and as a result, their colors are changed. For example, green, blue or red light is seen. But if the speed exceeds 0.3 times of the speed of light, there is a strong possibility that it cannot be seen in the visible light range. This means that the waves are emitted and reach the observer, but the observer does not perceive it.

If there is a special telescope that is designed for observing x-rays, it collects these specific wave ranges of space and probes them. The waves observed by this telescope, which made errors due to the redshift and blueshift phenomena, can be divided into the following 3 categories:

1) If the blueshift phenomenon has affected that wave, the observed waves have been actually in the range of visible light, but we perceive them as x-rays.

2) Sometimes the effect of the redshift phenomenon on the real gravity waves causes these waves to be observed in the x-ray range.

3) Real x-rays, which are really in the range of x-rays, can be seen in the other range (even infrared waves range). In fact, our x-rays have disappeared and we cannot observe them.

Result: According to these contents, it can be said that most of the waves that we perceive are affected by the Redshift and Blueshift phenomenon and the observers will definitely make an error. This error causes about 70% of the received waves to be different from their reality.

Suggestion: According to the relation “C=λf” where “λ” is always constant, if telescopes are built based on sensitivity to wavelength, it can be said that the accuracy will increase to 90% and the error will not exceed 10%.

In fact, a revolution should be made in the manufacturing of telescopes so that we can get closer to the real truth

C) Multifunctional receiver sensor (receiver of all electromagnetic waves including: radio , microwave, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-ray and gravity)

The receiver sensor should be sensitive to “λ” instead of frequency or the same counting the number of beats.

New Discovery of Virtual Waves in the World Or A Revolution in the Manufacturing of Space Telescopes

This type of receiver sensor gives us a real image that does not have the error of virtual waves, and also gives us radio waves, micro waves, infrared waves, visible waves, ultraviolet waves, X-rays, gravity waves in each image simultaneously, and there is no need for different telescopes. Therefore, you can get a versatile telescope at a reasonable price.

D) Advantages:

1. This telescope could receive original and real waves

2. The received waves do not include virtual waves or waves that have low shift or high shift due to the phenomenon of Redshift or Blueshift.

3. The accuracy of receipts and calculations increases to about 90% and the error is reduced to less than 10%.

4. Strong and huge telescopes can be built on the ground and the difficulty of sending telescopes into space is reduced.

5. All the waves in the universe can be received with this method without deficiency, and the universe can be observed with only one telescope.

6. The cost of producing telescopes will be reduced to less than 20% of the current cost

7. Maintenance of telescopes becomes convenient, easy and inexpensive due to their availability

II. Design and manufacturing of low-defect telescopes based on wavelength

The research stages of the construction of this telescope have been done. If you want to produce, please send an email

New Discovery of Virtual Waves in the World Or A Revolution in the Manufacturing of Space Telescopes

Accurate Calculation of the Volume and Density of the Big Bang

Considering that the smallest, fastest, and lightest object in the universe is photon and the universe mass is about 1053𝑘𝑔, if we consider the photon as the basis of the Big Bang, the volume and density equations are as follows:

Accurate Calculation of the Volume and Density of the Big Bang
Accurate Calculation of the Volume and Density of the Big Bang

Where 𝑚𝑇 is the total mass of universe, 𝑛 is the number of photon, 𝑚𝑝, 𝑟𝑝, 𝑉𝑝 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝜌𝑝 are the mass, radius, volume and density of the photon and 𝑟𝐵𝐵, 𝑉𝐵𝐵 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝜌𝐵𝐵 are the radius, volume and density of the Big Bang sphere.

According to the data, it can be said that if the existing sphere at the moment of the Big Bang was made of photons, by such a volume and mass, it is by far different from the information that obtained for the Big Bang before. In other words, the photon is not the desired particle that could have formed the Big Bang sphere.

Therefore, we define a special particle called “sub-photon” with dimensions of one billionth of a photon (in terms of radius value).

By using this particle, the calculations are as follows:

Accurate Calculation of the Volume and Density of the Big Bang
Accurate Calculation of the Volume and Density of the Big Bang

Where 𝑟𝑠𝑝 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑉𝑠𝑝 are the radius and volume of the “sub-photon”.

Due to obtained values, this fundamental particle is capable of defining the Big Bang phenomenon. It can be said that for the Big Bang, a density higher than 1042 𝑘𝑔/𝑚3 and a volume less than 1010 𝑚3 cannot be imagined.

Therefore, the density of the Big Bang is definitely less than 1042 𝑘𝑔/𝑚3 and its volume is undoubtedly more than 1010 𝑚3.

Saleh Theory
A Revolution in Light Theory

Saleh Research Group is an independent scientific group that based its strategy on scientific ingenuity and innovation.

We appreciate and welcome comments and points of view of individuals, scientists and students, regardless of any special biases including age, gender, race, nationality, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, disability, religion or personal identity, whether those who see, admire and encourage or those who oppose and criticize, which their criticism will improve our projects since knowledge is borderless and unprejudiced. With love of all humankind

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Publication of 82 Saleh Research Group's Abstracts by NASA Astrophysics Data System

Publication of Saleh Research Group's Abstracts by Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Contradiction Between Einstein's and Planck’s Formulae to Calculate the Energy of the Photon

In this video we defined contradiction in equality of Einstein's and Planck's formula for Photons in details and by introducing new definition for photon’s motion we solved this problem.

New Discoveries About Gravity?!!!

New Discoveries About Gravity?!!!

1) New Calculation of Gravity Frequency in Solar Systems

2) New Discovery of the Structure of Gravitational Force Lines (Gravitational Fluxes) and Its General Model

3) The Possibility of Data Transmission, Tens, Hundreds, Thousands of Times of the Light Speed in the Universe

4) The Possibility of Creation of a Speed Close to the Speed of Light in Spacecraft

5) Discovery of the Theory of Everything!!!?

6) Creating a Gravity Power Plant Using Gravitational Turbines to Get Strong and Clean Energy Everywhere and Everlasting, at Any Time

It is clear that, when a light spectrum or an object enters from a vacuum to a denser medium, such as air, the velocity of that will surely decrease, and the denser the media, the greater the change in velocity and kinetic energy. It should be noted that when a photon enters a denser medium from the air, such as water or glass, the photon Impulse the media and also that media impulse the photon which causes the refraction of light. To put in another way, the impulse changes the direction of light.
According to the rotational motion of a photon, in which the component of the velocity vector are in the direction of linear motion (v ͈ ) and perpendicular to it ( v ̝ ), the change in velocity is also like that and it would not effect on its gyroradius. As a result, the R will not change so the wavelength will be constant. Thus, our changes are only in the change of the frequency ( f=v⁄λ). The important point is that the velocity of the photon depends on that media, and if the media decreases the photon velocity, the initial velocity of photons for the next medium is the last velocity in the previous medium.
Attention: If a light spectrum enters or exits a denser medium perpendicularly, refraction usually does not occur and for composite light dispersion does not occur since the angle of entry and exit of light is in one direction. But if the incidence angle of composite light is acute, the dispersion of light will usually occur and the higher the light spectrum frequencies, the greater the angle of refraction of that spectrum. Like sunlight radiation to the optical prism which causes the natural (white) light being dispersion and become colored and the higher the frequency, the greater the angle of deviation.

Since the Big Bang has created both rotational and linear motion of particles, over time a centripetal force has been created. As a result of this rotation that is called a dark matter, or in our theory vivid force, suns come close together at a point which called the center (black holes) and immerge in each other, forming very large suns till they reach very high gravity and very high density, which actually called the black hole.

Saleh Theory: Initial explanation Several batches of photons had collided at one point, had behaved according to the impulse theory and the Big Bang has occurred, which will be explained in our articles in the near future.

According to what has been said about dark energy (https://youtu.be/YWgiB0hhnNw) dark energy is the remaining of the Big Bang (Big Bang is a sudden and intense explosion of the universe at one point). And in fact, at beginning the celestial objects had very very high accelerated motion and over time, after billions of years, electrons, protons, suns and galaxies have been created and some of the energy had been consumed for the production of them. After that very high acceleration period, the world has reached a balance and relative homogeneity. In fact, from the Big Bang time, the world has begun to tear, and over time, this discontinuity has reached to a closeness, homogeneous and balance. It should be noted that the beginning time of homogeneity and equilibrium in the world is the beginning time of the creation of dark energy.

  • 3 Dimensional Motion of Photon and Its Energy

    Saleh Research Group presented an article entitled "3 Dimensional Motion of Photon and Its Energy" in the European Optical Society Annual Meeting (EOSAM) which held virtually during 07-11 Sep, 2020.

  • The experimental reason which could prove the 3 dimensional photon motion

    In 2017, Saleh Research Group proposed the theory of 3 dimensional photon motion and published this theory in the MATEC Web of Conferences[1]. At the time, this theory seemed to be a completely deconstructing theory, but over time, the experimental signs of 3 dimensional photon motion have been became apparent.

    Mr. Luis and his colleagues presented their experimental results at the European Optical Society Annual meeting (EOSAM 2020) entitled "Structuring high-frequency light using high-harmonic sources" [2] that indicate the existence of rotational motion in the larger structures than single photons which we can drive the rotational motion of the photons from their results.

  • New Definition of the Colorfulness of Photon

    Saleh Research Group published its video entitled "New Definition of the Colorfulness of Photon" in May 5, 2017 about photon motion on its YouTube channel.

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