Virtual Conference on Condensed Matter Physics (ISCMP2023)

The Era of Extraction of Dense Materials, Such as Protons, from Space




The Era of Extraction of Dense Materials, Such as Protons, from Space

There are various structures in the world, including protons, electrons, neutrons, etc. The collection of these particles creates dense materials of existence and each of them is created by the final explosion of the stars.

For example, if a star like our sun reaches the end of its life, it will probably convert to a white dwarf (a collection of protons) as a result of an explosion or due to the explosion of other stars, matter such as neutrons can remain, which creates neutron stars or magnetars. Black holes also can be created due to the stellar explosion or strong gravity. The very interesting point is that these are very dense that their density is about 1016 (Kg/m3) or more.

Although this density is very high, it should be noted that these particles has no compression. In fact, if it is possible to build a space craft that could land on a proton star or a white dwarf, the protons can be extracted from its surface with a spoon.

In fact, it can be said that their natural structure has such a density, but the word "compression" that is in our mind cannot be attributed to them. For better understanding, consider mercury, which is among the elements with a high density, but it is a liquid material and can easily extract from it. (Mercury has a greater density than iron)


In Milky Way galaxy, which itself has billions of stars, there are thousands of white dwarfs which proton can be extracted from them.

Keywords: Condensed matter; Astro Condensed matter; Density; Compression

Authors: Gh Saleh.

Condensed matter Astro Condensed matter Density Compression